Female fertility is a time-limited condition, ranging from first menstruation to menopause.
It is greater in the first years after the menarche (first menstruation), it tends to decrease, especially in nulliparous women (without children), approaching menopause.
The demographic decline characteristic of Western countries is mainly due to the fact that women tend to procreate after the age of 35, if not even after the age of 40, and this leads to difficulties, if not impossibility, to have children, and in the best of cases to make only one.
The functioning of the female reproductive system, a basic condition for fertility, is complex.
Several factors come into play, also involving the brain and glands external to the apparatus itself.
And for this reason, there are also many causes that can interfere with its functioning and are not always the responsibility of the gynecologist alone.
The female genital system, consisting of ovaries (where the eggs are formed), fallopian tubes (through which the eggs pass to enter the uterus), uterus (where the egg and sperm meet, and where the egg fertilized “nestles”) and vagina (the part that welcomes the penis in case of heterosexual intercourse), works thanks to hormonal stimuli that depart from the pituitary gland (located in the brain), and is also affected by the action of other endocrine glands (thyroid , adrenal glands), i.e. hormone-producing glands.
Therefore any pathology and / or alteration of these glands, even if distant and separated from the female genital system, can interfere with fertilization and pregnancy.
Suffice it to say that stressful situations or poor nutrition or anorexia lead to a block of menstruation, in the same way they can prevent pregnancy.
Changing social mores in recent years has led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (MTS), and some of these interfere with fertility.
Chlamydial infection is an exemplary case of sexually transmitted infection that can also lead to untreatable infertility.