When the natural way does not work or is not practicable, we turn to it

to the medicine to procreate.

Then we move from the bedroom to the laboratory.

In the laboratory, based on the medical problem that compromises the

fertility, different techniques can be used, which through the

manipulation of ova and spermatozoa or embryos.

These procedures do not work miracles. They get good results

in women under the age of 35 (live and healthy children are born in

about 30% of the procedures), and they work in about one in ten cases

in women aged 41 to 42 years.

In the over 42s it is recommended to use another woman such as


Compared to normal pregnancies, these procedures involve one

slightly higher rate of twin pregnancies.

The technique of PMA (medically assisted procreation) plus

ancient, it is also the simplest and most obvious: it consists of

introduction of spermatozoa (selected in the laboratory from among the most active)

directly into the woman’s uterus, corresponding to the period

ovulatory. Usually you have to make several attempts, and it is among all

the least intrusive, least expensive, least invasive. Takes the


A technique that gives more significant results, which is used a

regardless of the cause of inferitility, IVF is the most widely used

(In Vitro Fertilization).

It consists of a process that requires constant commitment

a few days, with therapy and even multiple passages

from the health facility. In fact, the woman will have to undergo some

stings of hormones (human gonadotropins) to stimulate the

egg production. With ultrasound, this production is monitored and

when the eggs are considered mature, they are collected with a needle

introduced through the vagina and under ultrasound guidance. In

alternatively, the sampling can take place in laparoscopy, that is with a

small incision at the navel. The ova thus

taken, they are taken to a special laboratory, where they are placed

on a culture plate, they are fertilized with spermatozoa.

As in the case of intrauterine insemination, the

most viable spermatozoa (in medical term it is said with the index of

highest activity). Fertilization can take place by way

conventional, then letting the sperms fertilize

naturally the ovum. Or through the injection

intracytoplasmic, i.e. by injecting the spermatozoon with a needle

inside the egg. Basically a single sperm is injected

in each oocyte. Then he expects a period of between 2 and 5

days, the period necessary for the development of an embryo.

Up to three embryos are then implanted in the woman’s uterus

through appropriate technique. Any surplus embryos (plus

of three, they are frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored for a

future use.

This technique in women under the age of 35 gives results

positive in about half of the cases. In women between 41 and 42 years old,

it works in about one in ten cases. Obviously the plant up to three

embryos, which allows for a greater chance of success

pregnancy, can lead to multiple pregnancies, and consequent risks

both maternal and fetal.

Another technique used when IVF does not work is the so-called

GIFT (Gametes Intra Fallopian Transfer). It consists of the

introduction of ova and spermatozoa directly into the fallopian tubes

Fallopian, through two techniques: transvaginal and laparoscopic.

In this way, the zygotes (i.e. the ovum) can also be introduced

fertilized) or the embryo. In the first case we speak of technique

ZIFT and in the second case of TET technique.

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