When the natural way does not work or is not practicable, we turn to it
to the medicine to procreate.
Then we move from the bedroom to the laboratory.
In the laboratory, based on the medical problem that compromises the
fertility, different techniques can be used, which through the
manipulation of ova and spermatozoa or embryos.
These procedures do not work miracles. They get good results
in women under the age of 35 (live and healthy children are born in
about 30% of the procedures), and they work in about one in ten cases
in women aged 41 to 42 years.
In the over 42s it is recommended to use another woman such as
Compared to normal pregnancies, these procedures involve one
slightly higher rate of twin pregnancies.
The technique of PMA (medically assisted procreation) plus
ancient, it is also the simplest and most obvious: it consists of
introduction of spermatozoa (selected in the laboratory from among the most active)
directly into the woman’s uterus, corresponding to the period
ovulatory. Usually you have to make several attempts, and it is among all
the least intrusive, least expensive, least invasive. Takes the
name of INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION.
A technique that gives more significant results, which is used a
regardless of the cause of inferitility, IVF is the most widely used
(In Vitro Fertilization).
It consists of a process that requires constant commitment
a few days, with therapy and even multiple passages
from the health facility. In fact, the woman will have to undergo some
stings of hormones (human gonadotropins) to stimulate the
egg production. With ultrasound, this production is monitored and
when the eggs are considered mature, they are collected with a needle
introduced through the vagina and under ultrasound guidance. In
alternatively, the sampling can take place in laparoscopy, that is with a
small incision at the navel. The ova thus
taken, they are taken to a special laboratory, where they are placed
on a culture plate, they are fertilized with spermatozoa.
As in the case of intrauterine insemination, the
most viable spermatozoa (in medical term it is said with the index of
highest activity). Fertilization can take place by way
conventional, then letting the sperms fertilize
naturally the ovum. Or through the injection
intracytoplasmic, i.e. by injecting the spermatozoon with a needle
inside the egg. Basically a single sperm is injected
in each oocyte. Then he expects a period of between 2 and 5
days, the period necessary for the development of an embryo.
Up to three embryos are then implanted in the woman’s uterus
through appropriate technique. Any surplus embryos (plus
of three, they are frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored for a
This technique in women under the age of 35 gives results
positive in about half of the cases. In women between 41 and 42 years old,
it works in about one in ten cases. Obviously the plant up to three
embryos, which allows for a greater chance of success
pregnancy, can lead to multiple pregnancies, and consequent risks
both maternal and fetal.
Another technique used when IVF does not work is the so-called
GIFT (Gametes Intra Fallopian Transfer). It consists of the
introduction of ova and spermatozoa directly into the fallopian tubes
Fallopian, through two techniques: transvaginal and laparoscopic.
In this way, the zygotes (i.e. the ovum) can also be introduced
fertilized) or the embryo. In the first case we speak of technique
ZIFT and in the second case of TET technique.